40 Penyebab Sakit Kepala Lengkap Berdasarkan Jenisnya | DIET SEHAT ALAMI

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40 Penyebab Sakit Kepala Lengkap Berdasarkan Jenisnya





Penyebab Sakit Kepala Lengkap Berdasarkan Jenisnya – Jaman dahulu orang-orang disekitar desa saya sering menganggap penyebab sakit kepala adalah pengaruh roh jahat, lebih tepatnya roh yang masuk kedalam tempurung kepala. Entah kamu harus mempercayainya atau tidak, yang jelas sekarang telah ada banyak sekali penelitian mendalam yang mampu menjawab pemicu sakit kepala tersebut.
Penyebab sakit kepala berkepanjangan
Sakit kepala tidak berdarah tapi menyiksa


Dalam dunia medis, sakit kepala dikenal dengan cephalalgia yang menyebabkan munculnya sakit pada bagian otak sampai menjurus pada leher belakang dan bahkan sampai bagian punggung atas. Sementara sakit kepala sebelah saja (kanan atau kiri) dalam dunia medis dikenal sebagai sakit kepala migrain.

Penyebab sakit kepala sebelah (migrain) dan penyebab sakit kepala belakang (cephalalgia) itu berbeda-beda meskipun banyak yang menganggap sama. Munculnya rasa sakit tersebut dapat disebabkan mulai dari kondisi stres sampai dengan konsumsi makanan-makanan tertentu.

Pada kesempatan kali ini saya akan mencoba menguraikan satu per satu penyebab sakit kepala tersebut. Baik penyebab secara umum, akibat konsumsi makanan, ataupun jenisnya. Sehingga kamu bisa lebih faham mengenai sakit kepala yang diderita selama ini. Apa penyebab sakit kepala itu? berikut informasi selengkapnya.

Penyebab Sakit Kepala Sesuai Jenis-Jenisnya

Bagi kamu yang sering mengalami sakit kepala setiap harinya, akan sangat penting apabila kamu mengetahui penyebab sakit kepala berdasarnya jenisnya. Dengan mengetahui jenis sakit kepala tersebut, maka kamu bisa melakukan langkah pencegahan dan pengobatan sejak dini.
Penyebab sakit kepala berdasarkan jenis-jenisnya
Macam-macam sakit kepala itu berbeda

Pada umumnya penyebab sakit kepala dapat dibedakan menjadi 3 jenis yang berbeda. Dilansir dari mediskus.comberikut informasi selengkapnya mengenai penyebab-penyebab sakit kepala tersebut.

1. Penyebab Sakit Kepala Tegang (Tension)

Sakit kepala jenis tension (tegang) ini paling banyak diderita oleh masyarakat. Munculnya sakit kepala jenis ini dapat ditandai dengan gejala rasa sakit ringan sampai dengan sedang pada bagian kepala, leher, dan belakang mata. Terkadang beberapa penderita sakit kepala jenis tension juga mengalami sakit kepala seperti ada sebuah tali yang mengikat ketat pada sekeliling kepala.

Penyebab sakit kepala jenis tension dapat muncul dikarenakan adanya kontraksi (penegangan) pada bagian otot leher dan kepala. Berbagai macam kegiatan fisik, stressor, dan makanan dapat memicu munculnya rasa sakit kepala tersebut. Beberapa orang yang menatap komputer dan mengemudikan kendaraan terlalu lama, lebih beresiko terserang sakit kepala jenis tension ini.

Faktor lain yang dapat memicu munculnya sakit kepala tension antara lain:
  • Terjadinya ketegangan pada bagian otot mata
  • Tubuh merasa kelelahan berlebihan
  • Konsumsi minuman-minuman beralkohol tinggi
  • Terdapatnya infeksi sinus
  • Tubuh terserang fluk, batuk, dan pilek terlalu lama
  • Konsumsi makanan berkafein tinggi
  • Postur tubuh yang buruk
  • Stres secara emosional 
  • Merokok secara berlebihan.

2. Penyebab Sakit Kepala Sebelah (Migrain)

Migrain atau sakit kepala sebelah, biasanya muncul dengan gejala sakit kepala berdenyut-denyut hanya pada bagian sisi kepala saja. Sayangnya penyebab sakit kepala sebelah ini belum diketahui sampai dengan sekarang. 

Namun beberapa ilmuwan menduga bahwa sakit kepala ini disebabkan karena adanya masalah pembuluh darah dan masalah sistem saraf pusat (otak).

Meskipun sekarang ini penelitian belum bisa membuktikan penyebab sakit kepala sebelah. Para ahli beranggapan sakit kepala ini dipicu karena beberapa hal berikut, seperti:
  • Kadar serotonin yang rendah (serotonin merupakan sebuah neurotransmiter yang mampu mengontrol suasana hati, tidur, dan nafsu makan kita)
  • Kekurangan magnesium. Kandungan ini sangat bermanfaat untuk mengatur sistem saraf pusat (otak)
  • Neuropeptida, merupakan zat protein yang kecil dan mampu memicu munculnya peradangan nyeri pada bagian kepala.
  • Terjadinya fruktasi hormon pada bagian tubuh. Ini biasanya muncul pada hormon estrogen saat seorang wanita mengalami menstruasi.
  • Adanya peradangan pada bagian saraf rahang atas. Saraf ini termasuk kedalam cabang saraf trigeminal yang berguna untuk mengontrol sensasi antara mulut dan hidung kamu.
Selain penyebab-penyebab sakit kepala sebelah diatas, ada juga faktor pemicu ringan munculnya sakit kepala migrain/sebelah tersebut. Seperti:
  • Kondisi sters dan emosional yang selalu memuncak
  • Kelaparan/telat makan dan dehidrasi
  • Perubahan pola tidur secara tidak wajar (kurang tidur atau kelebihan tidur)
  • Pancaran cahaya yang terang, termasuk cahaya matahari secara langsung
  • Suara keras yang dapat membuat gendang bergetar
  • Bau-bauan yang menyengat. Mulai dari parfum, cologne, dan durian.
  • Aktivitas fisik secara berlebihan, seperti bekerja lembur, angkat beban berlebih, olahraga berlebih, hubungan suami istri, dan lainnya.

3. Penyebab Sakit Kepala Cluster

Sakit kepala jenis cluster ini menyebabkan rasa sakit yang benar-benar menyiksa pada bagian kepala dan satu bagian bola mata. Munculnya sakit kepala jenis ini ditandai dengan adanya produksi air mata secara berlebihan, baik mata pada bagian kanan ataupun kiri. Jika sakit kepala cluster dibiarkan maka akan menyebar hingga wajah, leher, bahu, dan bagian-bagian area atas lainnya.

Penyebab munculnya sakit kepala cluster dapat terjadi karena adanya pelebaran pembuluh darah (dilatasi) pada bagian saluran menuju ke otak dan wajah. Adanya pelebaran pembuluh darah ini dapat menyebabkan tekanan secara berlebih pada bagian saraf trigeminal, sehingga menimbulkan sensasi sakit kepala yang cukup luar biasa. Sayangnya munculnya pelebaran pembuluh darah tersebut hingga sekarang belum diketahui secara pasti.

Para peneliti percaya bahwa penyebab sakit kepala cluster dapat terjadi karena adanya gangguan pada hipotalamus. Hipotalamus sendiri merupakan salah satu bagian otak yang bertugas mengatur suhu tubuh, keseimbangan, tidur, dan pelepasan hormon dalam tubuh. Selain hipotalamus yang mengalami gangguan, sakit kepala ini juga disebabkan karena adanya serotonin dan histamin yang dilepas secara tiba-tiba oleh tubuh.

Penyebab Sakit Kepala Secara Umum Dalam Dunia Medis

Sakit kepala muncul secara tiba-tiba tanpa kita ketahui sebelumnya. Sebenarnya munculnya sakit kepala tersebut bisa disebabkan karena hal-hal yang cukup sepele. Bahkan kamu tidak menyangka bahwa hal sepele tersebut dapat menyebabkan sakit kepala. Dilansir dari Panadol.com, berikut ada beberapa pemicu terbesar sakit kepala yang wajib kamu ketahui.
Bagian sakit kepala = otak


1. Cuaca yang tak menentu

Sakit kepala dapat muncul disebabkan karena adanya pengaruh cuaca setiap hari. Meskipun tidak ada jenis cuaca yang bisa dikatakan sebagai penyebab sakit kepala, namun yang pasti perubahan cuaca dalam waktu cepat dapat menimbulkan munculnya rasa sakit kepala.

Misalnya, ketika kita sedang berada di ruangan ber-AC yang cukup dingin. Setelah kita keluar dari ruangan tersebut dan berada di luar yang panas, secara otomatis proses kimiawi dalam otak berubah. Dari sinilah muncul rasa sakit kepala tersebut.

2. Stres berlebihan

2/3 orang menganggap stres sebagai pemicu munculnya sakit kepala yang sebenarnya. Biasanya mereka akan berkata “aku sakit kepala karena sedang stres dan banyak pikiran”. Padahal dalam dunia medis, sakit kepala sebenarnya muncul setelah stres tersebut hilang.

Hal ini dapat terjadi karena saat stres hilang tubuh sebenarnya telah memproduksi hormon pelawan stres tersebut, namun karena sudah sembuh hormon tersebut tidak berguna dan akhirnya menyebabkan munculnya pelebaran pembuluh darah pada otak.

3. Hormon

Penyebab sakit kepala pada wanita sebagian besar dapat muncul karena pengaruh sistem hormonal dalam tubuh. Ketika seorang wanita sedang mengalami menstruasi, hormon estrogen dalam tubuh mereka naik cukup drastis. Hormon inilah yang kemudian menjadi pemicu sakit kepala.

Kamu tidak bisa menghindari siklus menstruasi agar tidak terserang sakit kepala, bahkan menggunakan bantuan dokter sekalipun. Sebab sakit kepala tersebut muncul dikarenakan gejala secara alamiah.

4. Program diet kamu

Jika kamu sedang melakukan diet sehat, pastikan makanan yang dikonsumsi itu cukup gizi dan nutrisi untuk tubuh. Sebab 9 dari 10 orang yang menjalani diet mereka mengalami sakit kepala mencengkram akibat kurangnya konsumsi makanan-makanan bernutrisi.

Adapun jenis makanan yang dapat memicu munculnya sakit kepala antar lain seperti buah-buahan masam, kacang-kacangan, makanan ber-MSG tinggi, daging awetan, makanan instan, junkfood, dan masih banyak lagi. Hindarilah makanan-makanan tersebut sebisa mungkin.

5. Minum

Dehidrasi dapat menjadi penyebab sakit kepala sebelah. Untuk mengatasinya kamu dapat mengonsumsi cairan sebanyak mungkin. Namun konsumsi cairan tertentu malah justru memicu sakit kepala, seperti konsumsi teh dan kopi.

Lebih baik kamu mengonsumsi air putih saja, karena air ini 100 % murni dan tidak menyebabkan munculnya gangguan. Bahkan para ahli mengatakan air putih dapat menjaga keseimbangan cairan di dalam tubuh kamu. Usahakan minimal konsumsi air putih sebanyak 10 gelas.

6. Terlambat makan

Terlambat makan (terutama ketika sarapan) dapat menyebabkan menurunnya kadar gula dalam darah secara cepat. Kondisi semacam inilah yang menjadi penyebab sakit kepala. Selain itu konsumsi makanan secara berlebihan juga dapat menyebabkan sakit kepala muncul, karena konsumsi makanan berlebih menyebabkan kadar gula darah naik cukup drastis.

Solusinya, adalah dengan kamu mengonsumsi makanan dalam jumlah cukup. Baik dari segi porsi makannya ataupun jumlah kalori. Utamakan sebelum kamu melakukan aktivitas, sarapanlah setiap pagi harinya.

7. Kurang tidur

Pola tidur yang tidak diatur dengan baik, akan menyebabkan munculnya sakit kepala yang berdenyut-denyut. Oleh karennya perbaiki waktu tidur kamu dengan tidak begadang setiap malam dan usahakan bagun secara rutin sesuai kebiasaan setiap harinya.

Selain memperbaiki waktu tidur, kamu juga tidak diperkenankan untuk tidur terlalu banyak. Sebab dengan tidur banyak otak akan mengalami gangguan penegangan. Menurut para ahli waktu tidur idealnya adalah 8 jam sehari.

8. Terlalu banyak melakukan olahraga

Olahraga memang merupakan aktivitas fisik yang cukup penting untuk menjaga kesehatan tubuh. Namun memforsir olahraga secara berlebihan dapat menyebabkan sirkulasi darah pada bagian otak dan leher meningkat, sehingga menimbulkan munculnya sakit kepala.

Para ahli menyarankan agar kita tidak melakukan olahraga secara berlebihan maksimal 4 kali dalam seminggu. Masing-masing olahraga tersebut lebih baik kamu lakukan 30 menit saja.

9. Postur malas

Apa itu postur malas? Postur ini merupakan sebuah kondisi dimana seseorang menekuk beberapa bagian tubuhnya. Postur inilah yang menghambat proses aliran darah dari tubuh menuju ke otak. Akibatnya sakit kepala mudah sekali muncul.

Selain menekuk tubuh, hindarilah posisi tubuh yang selalu sama dalam setiap waktu. Karena posisi yang sama dapat menimbulkan munculnya reaksi otak yang menegang dan akhirnya sakit kepala menyerang.

10. Menggesekan gigi ketika malam hari

Beberapa orang kerap sekali menggesekan gigi ketika malam hari tanpa sadar. Biasanya gesekan gigi ini terdengar cukup jelas dan muncul ketika tubuh bergerak saat tidur (mulet). Untungnya, sekarang ini telah ada sebuah alat yang berguna untuk mencegah pergesekan gigi tersebut, sehingga sakit kepala bisa dicegah sejak dini.

11. Sambaran petir

Terlihat cukup sadis jika saya mengatakan “sambaran petir” namun inilah penyebab sakit kepala yang jarang diketahui oleh masyarakat. Menurut jurnal kesehatan Internasional PBB, seseorang yang sudah mengalami sakit kepala kronis mereka lebih beresiko terserang sakit kepala ketika petir menyambar minimal 21 mil dari tempat ia berdiri.

Adanya petir dapat menimbulkan pancaran gelombang elektromagnetik yang dapat menyerang pada bagian saraf pusat (otak). Mungkin beberapa orang hanya mengalami sakit kepala yang sebentar saja, tetapi beberapa orang bahkan mengalami kematian akibat sakit kepala tersebut.

Makanan-Makanan Penyebab Sakit Kepala

Makanan penyebab sakit kepala
Makanan penyebab sakit kepala
Penyebab sakit kepala tidak hanya berasal dari kebiasaan-kebiasaan buruk yang kita lakukan saja, tetapi munculnya sakit kepala juga dapat dipicu oleh makanan yang kita konsumsi. Adapun makanan penyebab sakit kepala antara lain seperti.

1. Makanan mengandung tiramin

Ada banyak sekali makanan yang mengandung tiramin tinggi. Kandungan tiramin ini dapat menjadi pemicu sakit kepala secara langsung, bahkan hanya memerlukan 30 menit saja untuk menimbulkan rasa sakit kepala tersebut.

Makanan-makanan yang mengandung tiramin antara lain seperti keju, acar, bawang merah, minyak zaitun, biji-bijian, avokad, kacang-kacangan, sup dalam kaleng, dan masih banyak lagi.

2. Makanan bernitrat dan mengandung pewarna

Makanan-makanan yang mengandung nitrat tinggi dapat menyebabkan aliran darah menjadi semakin meningkat, akibatnya sakit kepala dapat dengan mudah muncul.
Selain makanan bernitrat, makanan dengan pewarna seperti es dipinggir jalan, minuman cola-cola, dan lainnya juga bisa memicu munculnya sakit kepala.

3. Konsumsi minuman beralkohol tinggi

Sebuah penelitian telah mengungkapkan bahwa konsumsi alkohol berlebihan dapat menjadi penyebab sakit kepala. Jenis alkohol anggur merak dikatakan efeknya lebih parah dari anggur putih, khususnya memicu efek pemicu sakit kepala.

Umumnya mereka yang mengalami sakit kepala setelah konsumsi anggur, mereka juga akan mengalami gejala sama ketika konsumsi cokelat.

4. Makanan dingin

Konsumsi es krim ataupun minuman es lainnya memang cukup segar, terutama ketika cuaca sedang panas-panasnya. Namun tahukah kamu sebenarnya minuman dingin dapat memicu munculnya sakit kepala?

Menurut para ahli, sakit kepala dapat muncul disebabkan karena minuman dingin mengakibatkan adanya penegangan pada bagian saraf otak dan leher. Meskipun sakit kepala biasanya hanya muncul 30-60 menit, namun jika dilakukan secara terus menerus akan menyebabkan sakit kepala permanen.

5. Konsumsi makanan berkafein

Kopi merupakan salah satu penyebab sakit kepala bagian belakang, sakit kepala migrain, dan bahkan penyebab sakit kepala berpanjangan. Hal ini dapat terjadi karena kopi mengandung senyawa kafein yang dapat membuat sistem saraf menjadi lebih tegang.

Selain dapat menyebabkan gangguan saraf, konsumsi minuman berkafein seperti mocca, cokelat, kopi, dan lainnya juga dapat menyebabkan sirkulasi darah meningkat. Bahkan jika berlebihan, kamu akan berpotensi terserang penyakit jantung dan hipertensi.

Bagaimana Cara Mengetahui Penyebab Sakit Kepala Saya?

Jika kamu kurang yakin apa penyebab sakit kepala diri sendiri, maka silahkan buat sebuah catatan kecil mengenai hal-hal yang telah kamu lakukan dan konsumsi terakhir kalinya. Dengan melihat catatan tersebut, maka kamu bisa mengetahui penyebab sakit kepala dan melakukan langkah pencegahan.

Itulah informasi lengkap seputar penyebab sakit kepala. Jika kamu mengalami sakit kepala sebaiknya obati dengan cara alami mengobati sakit kepala dulu sebelum memilih obat-obatan kimia. Semoga bermanfaat.


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