12 Gejala Diabetes atau Kencing Manis Waspadalah | DIET SEHAT ALAMI

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12 Gejala Diabetes atau Kencing Manis Waspadalah





Gejala Diabetes – Kencing manis atau diabetes merupakan penyakit jangka panjang yang ditandai dengan meningkatnya kadar gula darah. 

Sel-sel tubuh manusia memerlukan energi dari gula (glukosa) untuk bisa berfungsi dengan normal. Yang biasanya mengendalikan gula darah adalah hormon insulin.

Apabila tubuh kekurangan insulin atau mengalami resitansi insulin pada sel-sel tubuh, maka kadar zat gula (glukosa) dalam darah akan meningkat drastis. Inilah yang menjadi penyebab diabetes melitus atau kencing manis.

Penderita Diabetes di Indonesia

Pada tahun 2013 lalu, penderita diabetes di negara kita mencapai 8,5 juta orang yang terdiri dari rentang usia 20-79 tahun (dikutip dari Federasi Diabetes Internasional). Tetapi mirisnya, kurang dari setengah dari mereka yang menyadari kondisi tersebut. Jadi pada umumnya diabetes termasuk penyakit yang sulit dideteksi dan banyak menyerang penduduk Indonesia.

Sedangkan pada tahun 2011, penderita diabetes dari kalangan orang dewasa di Asia Tenggara mencapai 71,4 juta jiwa atau sekitar 8,3 % populasi manusia di wilayah ini. Tingginya penderita diabetes ini tentunya membuka mata kita agar lebih giat dalam menjaga kesehatan tubuh, apalagi bagi kamu yang saat ini belum menerapkan pola hidup sehat.

Apa Sajakah Jenis-Jenis Diabetes itu?

Diabetes memiliki dua jenis utama, yaitu diabetes tipe 1 dan tipe 2. Diantara kedua jenis tersebut, diabetes tipe 2 cenderung paling banyak diderita. Hampir 80 % penderita diabetes di Indonesia termasuk tipe 2.

Diabetes tipe 2 dapat muncul disebabkan karena terjadi penurunan produksi insulin atau tubuh kurang peka terhadap insulin. Kondisi semacam ini dikenal dalam dunia medis dengan resistansi insulin.

Jenis diabetes tipe 2 ini kebanyakan menyerang orang-orang yang sudah berusia 40 tahun. Namun seiring dengan perkembangan jaman, dewasa ini pengidapnya banyak yang berasal dari kalangan anak muda. Selain itu, diabates tipe 2 juga lebih sering diderita oleh etnis Asia dibandingkan yang lainnya.

Apa Sajakah Gejala Diabetes atau Kencing Manis itu?
Tanda-tanda diabetes atau kencing manis

Orang bilang ‘lebih baik mencegah dari pada mengobati’. Anggapan semacam ini sangat pas sekali untuk diabetes. Belum adanya obat kencing manis, pastinya mendorong kita untuk lebih waspada terhadap diabetes.

Namun sayangnya banyak orang yang tak tau kalau sebetulnya mereka sudah terkena diabetes. Mengetahui gejala diabetes tipe 1 dan 2 mungkin bisa menjadi jawaban apakah kamu sudah terserang diabetes atau belum.

Adapun gejala diabetes melitus antara lain:

1. Lebih sering buang air kecil

Tanda diabetes pertama yang bisa kamu waspadai adalah sering buang air kecil, terutama ketika malam hari tiba. Buang air kecil di malam hari mungkin wajar, tapi kamu patut curiga apabila buang air kecil lebih dari 3 kali dalam semalam.

2. Selalu merasa haus dan kelelahan

Seperti yang dijelaskan diatas tadi, penderita diabetes akan kesulitan mengolah gula (glukosa) menjadi energi. Inilah yang mengakibatkan sel tidak mampu menjalankan tugasnya dengan baik, sehingga tubuh pun tidak mendapatkan energi dan akhirnya sering lelah.

Tidak hanya lelah saja, terganggunya metabolisme sel tubuh terkadang dapat menyebabkan munculnya rasa haus berlebihan. Bila dibiarkan, rasa haus ini kemungkinan akan mengakibatkan dehidrasi dan bibir pecah-pecah.

3. Berkurangnya berat badan

Kabar baik bagi kamu yang ingin menurunkan berat badan. Tetapi, melihat faktor pemicu turunnya berat badan adalah karena diabetes, tentu akan membuatmu khawatir.

Terjadinya penurunan berat badan secara dratis memang berkaitan erat dengan diabetes, meskipun ada juga orang gemuk yang kena diabetes. Menurunnya berat badan terjadi lantaran glukosa tidak mampu diubah menjadi energi atau cadangan energi (lemak) dalam tubuh.

4. Mati rasa (kesemutan)

Pada banyak kasus penderita diabetes melitus, hampir seluruhnya mengalami mati rasa (kebas) atau kesemutan, terutama pada bagian tangan, kaki, dan jari-jarinya.

Kondisi semacam ini bisa terjadi lantaran kadar gula darah yang tinggi mengakibatkan kerusakan saraf. Apabila gula darah semakin tinggi, saraf bisa mengalami mati rasa secara permanen (kelumpuhan).

5. Berkurangnya masa otot

Diabetes tidak hanya membuat berat badan turun, tapi juga dapat memicu berkurangnya masa otot. Jika semula kamu memiliki otot yang kencang dan kekar kemudian secara drastis menjadi lembek (tak berisi) maka patut diwaspadai. Gejala diabetes satu ini biasanya muncul untuk penderita diabetes melitus tipe 2.

6. Penglihatan menjadi kabur

Akibat tingginya kadar gula darah penglihatan akan menjadi kabur. Kurangnya asupan nutrisi pada sel-sel mata membuat lensa mata menjadi kering. Ini membuat lensa mata sulit bekerja seperti biasanya, sehingga penglihatan pun menjadi buram dan kabur.

Meski demikian tidak perlu cemas, karena gejala diabetes satu ini bersifat reversibel (dapat kembali normal) seiring dengan berkurangnya kadar gula darah ke batas yang wajar. Namun, bila gula terus saja naik, mungkin penderita diabetes akan mengalami kebutaan permanen.

7. Masalah kulit

Tanda-tanda diabetes selanjutnya adalah masalah kulit. Tingginya gula darah mengakibatkan sirkulasi darah terganggu dan membuat kelenjar keringat mengalami disfungsional.

Kondisi inilah yang membuat berbagai masalah kulit seperti kering, bersisik, terasa gatal, dan bahkan iritasi. Namun gejala ini cukup sulit dideteksi sebagai tanda diabetes, karena ada banyak penyebab lain yang membuat kulit bermasalah seperti itu.

8. Proses pemulihan luka yang lambat

Munculnya luka ketika tubuh tidak dalam kondisi baik, seperti kelebihan gula darah, membuat sistem imun dan kekebalan tubuh menjadi tidak normal. Regenerasi sel-sel tubuh akan terhambat karena pengaruh imun dan gula darah tersebut, sehingga ketika kulit terkena luka akan sulit sekali sembuh. Bahkan apabila terkena infeksi, pembusukan mungkin akan terjadi di bagian luka tersebut.

9. Gangguan pada gigi dan gusi

Meningkatnya gula darah kadang membuat gigi sakit, khususnya bagi kamu yang menderita sakit gigi berlubang sebelumnya. Selain gigi, gusi pun tak lepas dari gangguan.

Penderita diabetes lebih rentan mengalami kerusakan gusi, misalnya seperti gusi bengkak, memerah, berdarah, menyusut, dan bahkan ada pula yang mengalami infeksi gusi.

10. Infeksi jamur

Infeksi jamur dapat terjadi ketika imun (kekebalan) tubuh tidak dapat bekerja optimal. Beberapa penelitian mengungkapkan kinerja imun akan menurun apabila tubuh memiliki gula darah dan kolesterol tinggi.

Sistem imun sendiri bertugas mencegah bakteri dan virus menyerang tubuh kita. Bila imun tidak bekerja optimal, maka tubuh akan sangat rentan terkena infeksi bakteri dan jamur. Pada wanita, biasanya gejala ini ditandai dengan munculnya keputihan abnormal.

11. Sering mengantuk

Apakah kamu akhir-akhir ini sering ngantuk? Waspadalah, karena itu bisa menjadi gejala diabetes melitus. Rasa ngantuk berlebihan dapat muncul karena sel tubuh tidak mendapatkan energi secara optimal dari gula (glukosa). Tidak hanya ngantuk saja, biasanya gejala ini diikuti juga dengan lesu, pusing, lelah, dan lemas.

12. Nafsu makan meningkat

Gejala diabetes yang terakhir adalah nafsu makan meningkat. Pada dasarnya penderita diabetes akan kesulitan dalam mengubah gula (glukosa) menjadi energi. Dengan demikian, tubuh akan meminta energi yang lebih banyak agar bisa melakukan metabolisme seperti biasanya.

Salah satu sumber energi yang bisa diperoleh tubuh adalah melalui makanan. Oleh karenanya, rasa lapar akan muncul apabila proses metabolisme sel dalam mengubah gula (glukosa) menjadi energi tidak berjalan dengan lancar. Biasanya makanan manis akan lebih disukai ketika mengalami kondisi ini.

Diabetes yang Dialami oleh Ibu Hamil

Diabetes juga dapat diderita oleh ibu hamil. Ini dapat terjadi karena wanita yang pada saat hamil tcenderung memiliki kadar gula darah cukup tinggi, sehingga membuat tubuh tidak mampu memproduksi cukup insulin untuk menyerapnya.

Jenis diabetes ini umumnya hanya menyerang satu diantara 20 wanita yang hamil, dan biasanya akan sembuh dengan sendirinya setelah proses melahirkan. Namun resiko terkena diabetes tipe 2 pada wanita yang pernah mengalami diabetes saat kehamilan ini akan tiga kali lipat lebih tinggi.

Diabetes saat hamil juga cukup beresiko terhadap janin, salah satunya dapat mengakibatkan janin lahir dengan berat badan berlebihan. Oleh sebab itu, ada baiknya selalu jaga gula darah ketika sedang hamil.


Diagnosis sejak dini sangat penting sebagai langkah awal agar diabetes dapat ditangani secepatnya. Jika kamu mengalami beberapa gejala diabetes diatas, sebaiknya konsultasikan langsung ke dokter untuk mendapatkan penanganan terbaik selanjutnya. Semoga dapat bermanfaat!



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